Litchfield: the Other Connecticut Modernist City

Updated: Mar 3


Gagarin Residence II by Marcel Breuer (1975). Photo ©Darren Bradley

Mention Connecticut to any Modernist architecture geek and you're likely to have a conversation about New Canaan. That's hardly surprising, as it was essentially the epicenter of Modernist architecture on the East Coast in the Post-War Era. Philip Johnson and other members of the Harvard Five settled in the area, and designed many houses there, as did many other well known architects of the time. But there's also another [much lesser known] city in Connecticut that is equally important for its Modernist architectural heritage: Litchfield.


Stillman House I. Photo ©Darren Bradley

Like many New England towns, there's a lot of history in Litchfield. The city was first incorporated in 1719, and it has a charming historical town center (although one side of the main street was lost to a devastating fire in 1886). But there are still lots of charming colonial buildings and lots of history. For example, Litchfield is home to America's first law school (Aaron Burr was the school's first student), and is also where Harriet Beecher Stowe (who wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin) lived.


Village of Litchfield

Given all this, it seems like an unlikely place to look for Modernist architecture. And yet, it is home to literally dozens of significant Modernist buildings, designed by some of the era's most prominent architects.


Litchfield happens to be near another city called Torrington, which was the headquarters for the Torin Fan Company - one of the largest industrial companies in the region in the post-WW2 period (Torin was later acquired by a British company and relocated to the UK, under the name Torin-Sifan, which exists still today).

Former Torin Fan Headquarters by Marcel Breuer (1953), Photo ©Darren Bradley

Rufus Stillman, the CEO of Torin Fan Company at the time, had a decidedly Modernist aesthetic, and commissioned Marcel Breuer to design his home in nearby Litchfield.

Stillman Residence I, by Marcel Breuer (Mural by Alexander Calder). Photo ©Darren Bradley

Breuer would eventually design three separate homes for Stillman in Litchfield, plus a version of Breuer's Cape Cod cottages.


One of Breuer's cottages in Cape Cod. Photo ©Darren Bradley
Here's the Stillman Cottage in Litchfield.

Not to be outdone, another senior executive at Torin - Andrew Gagarin and his wife, Jamie - commissioned Breuer to design a large villa for themselves in Litchfield.

Gagarin Residence I, by Marcel Breuer (1955). Photo ©Darren Bradley

This house was clearly designed for entertaining, and you can imagine the large parties that must have taken place here in its heyday.


Gagarin Residence I Living Area. Photo ©Darren Bradley

But with its open kitchen and free-flowing plan, it seems like a really easy house to live in, and relatively intimate by today's McMansion standards.

Kitchen at Gagarin I. Photo ©Darren Bradley

The game room at Stillman I. Those are window blinds on the opposite side, but I couldn't figure out how to open them. Photo ©Darren Bradley
Stillman House I living area. Photo ©Darren Bradley

Entry to the Stillman House... clearly taking the whole indoor/outdoor thing to another level. Photo ©Darren Bradley

The defining feature of this house, known as Gagarin I, is the organically formed concrete fireplace in the living room. It's a fascinating bit of flowing, sexy sculpture in what is otherwise a rectilinear structure.

Gagarin I fireplace. Photo ©Darren Bradley
The current owner is from Brazil... can you tell? Photo ©Darren Bradley

The other nod to free-flowing organic forms is the railing for the staircase.


I love those cut-outs in the stair railing. Photo ©Darren Bradley

There were lots of other little details everywhere... It was a joy to see.


Breuer clearly designed this feature for these shadows. Photo ©Darren Bradley

The place had fallen into disrepair, but had been rescued and restored by its present owner. It was listed for sale when I visited in September. I hope it goes to a new owner who will love it as much as this owner clearly does.


Master bedroom of the Gagarin Residence I. Photo ©Darren Bradley

If Gagarin House I is a monument to the glamorous, sophisticated lives of the Gagarins in the 1950s and 60s, the design of Gagarin House II reflects a quieter, more introspective time. The 1970s were a period marked by tragedy for the Gagarins, with the loss of their youngest son. The smaller, more intimate scale of Gagarin II reflects a desire for solace and solitude.


Gagarin II. Photo ©Darren Bradley

Breuer did a series of homes with this butterfly roof design - many early in his career. In fact, the house he designed for the MoMA exhibition had a butterfly roof, and was similar to this plan.


House in the Museum Garden (MoMA), 1949, by Marcel Breuer. Photo by Ezra Stoller.


Breuer going full circle in 1975 for Gagarin II. Photo ©Darren Bradley

Gagarin II is one of Breuer's last designs, and was completed in 1975. Jamie Gagarin remained in the house for the rest of her life, passing in 2016.


Dining area at Gagarin II. Photo ©Darren Bradley

The house is now owned by Kyra and Robertson Hartnett, who own a wallpaper design company called Twenty2. It is only through their wonderful hospitality and generosity that I was able to spend some time here (along with my friend and book collaborator, Sam Lubell, and author/curator Greg Goldin).

Sam, Kyra, Robertson, and Greg. Photo ©Darren Bradley

As part of our research for our Mid-Century Modern Architecture Guide with Phaidon, Sam and I had previously spent a couple of days in Litchfield looking at homes, and had included Kyra's and Rob's home in our book (we didn't know them at the time).